This code is based on the knowledge and technology available at the time of publication and may need to be changed in the light of future knowledge. It does not replace the need for experience and common sense in the husbandry of animals.

This code is based on the belief that cattle should be afforded the five freedoms of Webster, namely:

  • Freedom from thirst, hunger and malnutrition
  • Freedom from discomfort
  • Freedom from pain, injury or disease
  • Freedom to express normal behaviour
  • Freedom from fear and distress

A high degree of caring and responsible management and stockmanship is vital to ensure good animal welfare. Managers and stockmen must be thoroughly trained, skilled and competent in animal husbandry and welfare, and have a good working knowledge of their system and the livestock under their care.